In the hierarchical structure formation model of the universe, galaxy clusters are assembled through a series of mergers. Accordingly, it is expected that galaxy clusters in the early universe are actively forming and dynamically young. Located at a high redshift of z = 1.71, SpARCS1049+56 offers a unique look into the galaxy cluster formation process. This cluster has been shown to be rich in cluster galaxies and to have intense star formation. Its high redshift pushes a weak-lensing analysis beyond the regime of the optical spectrum into that of the infrared. Equipped with deep Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 UVIS and IR observations, we present a weak-lensing characterization of SpARCS1049+56. As few IR weak-lensing studies have been performed, we discuss the details of PSF modeling and galaxy shape measurement for an IR weak-lensing procedure and the systematics that come with the territory. It will be critical to understand these systematics in future weak-lensing studies in the IR with the next generation space telescopes such as JWST, Euclid, and WFIRST. Through a careful analysis, the mass distribution of this young galaxy cluster is mapped and the convergence peak is detected at a 3.3σ level. The weak-lensing mass of the cluster is estimated to be 3.5±1.2×1014 M☉ and is consistent with the mass derived from a mass-richness scaling relation. This mass is extreme for a cluster at such a high redshift and suggests that SpARCS1049+56 is rare in the standard ΛCDM universe.
|Publication status||Published - 2020 Feb 5|
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