Background: The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) -1131 T > C polymorphism is associated with mild hypertriglyceridemia in type 2 diabetic subjects, and interacts with dietary fat in the determination of triglyceride concentrations. We examined whether a substitution of whole grains and legumes for refined rice in a high carbohydrate diet (about 65% of energy derived from carbohydrate) may modify the effect of this variant on changes in apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V) and triglyceride concentrations.Methods: We genotyped the APOA5 -1131 T > C in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, who were randomly assigned to either a group ingesting whole grain and legume meals daily or a control group for 12 weeks.Results: After dietary intervention, we observed significant interactions between the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism and carbohydrate sources (whole grains and legumes versus refined rice) in the determination of mean percent changes in triglyceride and apoA-V (P interactions <0.001 and =0.038, respectively). In the refined rice group (n = 93), the carriers of the risk C allele (n = 50) showed a greater increase in the mean percent changes of triglyceride and apoA-V than noncarriers after adjusting for HOMA-IR (P = 0.004 and 0.021, respectively). The whole grain and legume group (n = 92), however, showed a decrease in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and triglyceride, and an increase in apoA-V, irrespective of genotype.Conclusions: The data showed that the magnitude of the genetic effect of the APOA5 -1131C variant on triglyceride and apoA-V levels was modulated when substituting consumption of whole grains and legumes for refined rice as a carbohydrate source in IFG or diabetic subjects.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01784952.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) and funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2006–2005306, 2010–0015017, and 2012M3A9C4048762).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Pharmacology (medical)