Background Few previous studies have investigated consumption distributions of sugar- sweetened beverages (SSBs) over time and individual-level associations despite recent interest in SSBs regarding obesity control. Objective To assess consumption patterns and individual-level associations. Design Trend and cross-sectional analyses of 24-hour dietary recall data and demographic characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES) drawn from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008) data. Participants/setting Children (aged 2 to 11 years, n=8,627), adolescents (aged 12 to 19 years, n=8,922), young adults (aged 20 to 34 years, n=5,933), and middle-aged and elder adults (aged ≥35 years, n=16,456). Statistical analyses performed Age-stratified regression analyses for SSBs overall and by subtypes. Results The prevalence of heavy total SSB consumption (≥500 kcal/day) increased among children (4% to 5%) although it decreased among adolescents (22% to 16%) and young adults (29% to 20%). Soda was the most heavily consumed SSB in all age groups except for children. Prevalence of soda consumption decreased, whereas heavy sports/ energy drink consumption tripled (4% to 12%) among adolescents. Black children and adolescents showed higher odds of heavy fruit drink consumption (odds ratios 1.71 and 1.67) than whites. Low-income children had a higher odds of heavy total SSB consumption (odds ratio 1.93) and higher energy intake from total SSBs and fruit drinks (by 23 and 27 kcal/day) than high-income children. Adolescents with low- vs high-educated parents had higher odds of heavy total SSB consumption (odds ratio 1.28) and higher energy intake from total SSBs and soda (by 27 and 21 kcal/day). Low vs high SES was associated with a higher odds of heavy consumption of total SSBs, soda, and fruit drinks among adults. Conclusions Prevalence of soda consumption fell, but consumption of nontraditional SSBs rose. Heterogeneity of heavy consumption by SSB types across racial/ethnic subpopulations and higher odds of heavy SSB consumption among low-SES populations should be considered in targeting policies to encourage healthful beverage consumption.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
FUNDING/SUPPORT Research support was provided by award no. R01HL096664 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and award no. 11IPA1102973 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Funding was also received from the Korea National Research Foundation (NRF-2012007096). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics