A combined analytical method has been developed to characterize the size dependent levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) contained in fly ash particles from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). Gravitational SPLITT fractionation (GSF), a relatively new technique for the fast and continuous separation of micron sized particles, was used to fractionate a fly ash sample, directly collected from a bag-filter house of MSWI in Korea, into six different size groups (<1.0, 1.0-2.5, 2.5-5.0, 5.0-10, 10-20, and 20-53 μm in diameter) in water solution, and the resulting fractions are examined by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) in order to determine the concentration of PCDD/Fs according to these particle sizes. The results from SPLITT fractionation show that approximately 54% of the fly ash particles (sieved fraction <53 μm) by weight have been found to be smaller than 5.0 μm excluding the water soluble matter in the sample. From the HRGC/HRMS measurements, particle fractions in the size range of PM 1.0-2.5 and 2.5-5.0 appear to carry about 76 and 79 ng/g of PCDD/Fs which are relatively larger than those found in other diameter ranges. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that particles larger than 5.0 μm are clustered into a group predominantly containing low chlorinated dioxins and fractions smaller than 5.0 μm into another group with lower chlorinated furans. This study demonstrated that the combining GSF with a secondary analytical method such as HRGC/HRMS has the potential to obtain size dependent information of particulate materials in relation to their production processes, chemical compositions, environmental fates, and other factors.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry