Purpose: To investigate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CECT) to predict clinically significant anastomotic leakage (CSAL) in patients who received colorectal cancer surgery with diverting ileostomy. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, patients who underwent colorectal cancer surgery with diverting ileostomy from January 2014 to May 2018 and postoperative CECT were included. The performance of significant CECT features, identified using multivariable logistic regression, to predict CSAL was calculated. In subgroup analysis, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCs) were compared between CECT and water-soluble contrast enema (WSCE) using DeLong’s method. Results: Of 325 patients (median age, 58 years; 213 men), CECT was routinely performed to evaluate cancer status in 307 (94.5%), and CSAL was observed in 28 (8.6%). After multivariable adjustment, anastomotic mural defect (odds ratio [OR] 5.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.77–15.51; p = 0.003), perianastomotic air (OR 7.28; 95% CI 1.82–29.17; p = 0.007) and ischemic colitis (OR 3.30; 95% CI 1.13–9.61; p = 0.029) were significantly associated with CSAL. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of significant CECT features were 60.7%, 88.2%, 85.9%, 32.7%, and 96.0%, respectively. In subgroup analysis of 144 patients, the AUROC using significant CECT features (optimal sensitivity/specificity, 50.0%/90.4%) was comparable to that using WSCE (optimal sensitivity/specificity, 12.5%/97.8%) to predict CSAL (0.704 vs. 0.552, p = 0.085). Conclusion: CECT performed after colorectal cancer surgery may be useful to assess anastomotic integrity before ileostomy closure, especially to negatively predict CSAL. In the presence of anastomotic mural defect, perianastomotic air, or ischemic colitis, WSCE may be recommended to exclude CSAL.
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© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging