A practical way of adjusting post-sulfurization process with variable durations is proposed to improve the cell-conversion efficiency of non-toxic solution driven CuIn0.7Ga0.3Se2 absorber thin films. The degree of bandgap grading was controllable by changing the sulfurization time from 2 min to 30 min due to the dissimilar distribution of sulfur across the absorber layer. Deeper intensified distributions of Ga and S were responsible for enhancements in the open-circuit voltage and cell-conversion efficiency. A competitive efficiency of ∼8.81% for the 10 min-sulfurized CIGSSe cell was achieved with other promising parameters, i.e., short-circuit current density of 33.17 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage of 0.496 V, and fill factor of 53.5%, resulting from the improved carrier collection and reduced recombination by the bandgap grading. This improved efficiency corresponds to a ∼15.6% enhancement compared to the unsulfurized sample.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was financially supported by a grant (NRF-2016M3A7B4910151) of the National Research Foundation of Korea.
© 2017 Elsevier B.V.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Metals and Alloys
- Materials Chemistry