Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is known as one of the most fatal malignant diseases in gastrointestinal system. Approximately 20% of patients are deemed resectable at the time of diagnosis. Preoperative neoadjuvant therapy to the borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) has been challenged to achieve down-staging of cancer, to avoid unnecessary major operation if the pancreatic cancer progresses and distant metastasis develops during preoperative treatment, and to avoid delayed adjuvant treatment after major operation due to postoperative complications and poor general condition after major surgery. However, there are some controversial issues influencing the clinical interpretation of surgical and oncologic outcomes of pancreatectomy following neoadjuvant treatment in managing BRPC. This manuscript reviews the current controversial issues in managing BRPC in order to enhance proper understanding the current status and potential role of neoadjuvant treatment in managing BRPC.
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