BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Comparison of the diagnostic performance for thyroid cancer on ultrasound between a convolutional neural network and visual assessment by radiologists has been inconsistent. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the convolutional neural network compared with the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer using ultrasound images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2019 to September 2019, seven hundred sixty thyroid nodules ($10 mm) in 757 patients were diagnosed as benign or malignant through fine-needle aspiration, core needle biopsy, or an operation. Experienced radiologists assessed the sonographic descriptors of the nodules, and 1 of 5 American College of Radiology TI-RADS categories was assigned. The convolutional neural network provided malignancy risk percentages for nodules based on sonographic images. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated with cutoff values using the Youden index and compared between the convolutional neural network and the American College of Radiology TI-RADS. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were also compared. RESULTS: Of 760 nodules, 176 (23.2%) were malignant. At an optimal threshold derived from the Youden index, sensitivity and negative predictive values were higher with the convolutional neural network than with the American College of Radiology TI-RADS (81.8% versus 73.9%, P ¼ .009; 94.0% versus 92.2%, P ¼ .046). Specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive values were lower with the convolutional neural network than with the American College of Radiology TI-RADS (86.1% versus 93.7%, P, .001; 85.1% versus 89.1%, P ¼ .003; and 64.0% versus 77.8%, P, .001). The area under the curve of the convolutional neural network was higher than that of the American College of Radiology TI-RADS (0.917 versus 0.891, P ¼ .017). CONCLUSIONS: The convolutional neural network provided diagnostic performance comparable with that of the American College of Radiology TI-RADS categories assigned by experienced radiologists.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||American Journal of Neuroradiology|
|Publication status||Published - 2021 Aug 1|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korean government (Ministry of Science and ICT) (2019R1A2C1002375) and a CMB-Yuhan research grant of Yonsei University College of Medicine (6-2017-0170).
Disclosures: Jin Young Kwak—RELATED: Grant: National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korean government (Ministry of Science and ICT) (2019R1A2C1002375).
© 2021 American Society of Neuroradiology. All rights reserved.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology