This study aimed to investigate the effect of Cordyceps militaris extract on the proliferation and apoptosis of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and determine the underlying mechanisms. We performed a CCK-8 assay to detect cell proliferation, detection of morphological changes through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), annexin V–FITC/PI double staining to analyze apoptosis, and immunoblotting to measure the protein expression of apoptosis and hedgehog signaling–related proteins, with C militaris treated NSCLC cells. In this study, we first found that C militaris reduced the viability and induced morphological disruption in NSCLC cells. The gene expression profiles indicated a reprogramming pattern of genes and transcription factors associated with the action of TCTN3 on NSCLC cells. We also confirmed that the C militaris–induced inhibition of TCTN3 expression affected the hedgehog signaling pathway. Immunoblotting indicated that C militaris–mediated TCTN3 downregulation induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells, involved in the serial activation of caspases. Moreover, we demonstrated that the C militaris negatively modulated GLI1 transcriptional activity by suppressing SMO/PTCH1 signaling, which affects the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. When hedgehog binds to the PTCH1, SMO dissociates from PTCH1 inhibition at cilia. As a result, the active GLI1 translocates to the nucleus. C militaris clearly suppressed GLI1 nuclear translocation, leading to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL down-regulation. These results suggested that C militaris induced NSCLC cell apoptosis, possibly through the downregulation of SMO/PTCH1 signaling and GLI1 activation via inhibition of TCTN3. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the treatment of NSCLC using C militaris.
|Journal||Integrative Cancer Therapies|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2017R1D1A1B03034936).
© The Author(s) 2020.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Complementary and alternative medicine