Purpose: The serum levels of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) have recently been shown to be correlated highly with disease activity in patients with intestinal Behçet's disease (BD). However, it remains unclear whether sTREM-1 levels reflect endoscopic activity in intestinal BD. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of sTREM-1 levels with endoscopic activity in intestinal BD. Materials and Methods: A total of 84 patients with intestinal BD were enrolled. Endoscopic activity was compared with sTREM-1 levels as well as other laboratory findings, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results: sTREM-1 levels were significantly increased in intestinal BD patients compared with controls (37.98±27.09 pg/mL vs. 16.65±7.76 pg/mL, p=0.002), however, there was no difference between endoscopically quiescent and active diseases (43.53±24.95 pg/mL vs. 42.22±32.68 pg/mL, p=0.819). Moreover, serum sTREM-1 levels did not differ in terms of number, shape, depth, size, margin, or type of ulcer in patients with intestinal BD. However, mean ESR and CRP levels in patients with active disease were significantly higher than those in patients with quiescent disease (p=0.001, p<0.001, respectively). In addition, endoscopic activity scores for intestinal BD were correlated significantly with both CRP levels (γ=0.329) and ESR (γ=0.298), but not with sTREM-1 levels (γ=0.166). Conclusion: Unlike CRP levels and ESR, serum sTREM-1 levels were not correlated with endoscopic activity in patients with intestinal BD.
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