The experimental or theoretical method that can visualize or quantify the architecture of bio-cake formed on the surface of membrane is of great interest in understanding biofouling mechanisms, also controlling biofouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). This paper summarizes the methods for determining the porosity of bio-cake experimentally or theoretically and also correlates the bio-cake architecture with membrane filterability in a submerged MBR under various operating conditions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This was supported by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the government (MOST) (No. RoA-2007-000-20073-0). The authors thank the National Instrumentation Center for Environment Management (NICEM) for the use of the confocal laser scanning microscope system.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Materials Science(all)
- Water Science and Technology
- Mechanical Engineering