Correlation of Yes-Associated Protein 1 with Stroma Type and Tumor Stiffness in Hormone-Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

Yangkyu Lee, Soong June Bae, Na Lae Eun, Sung Gwe Ahn, Joon Jeong, Yoon Jin Cha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


(1) Background: Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is an oncogene activated under the dysregulated Hippo pathway. YAP1 is also a mechanotransducer that is activated by matrix stiffness. So far, there are no in vivo studies on YAP1 expression related to stiffness. We aimed to investigate the association between YAP1 activation and tumor stiffness in human breast cancer samples, using immunohistochemistry and shear-wave elastography (SWE). (2) Methods: We included 488 patients with treatment-naïve breast cancer. Tumor stiffness was measured and the mean, maximal, and minimal elasticity values and elasticity ratios were recorded. Nuclear YAP1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs); tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) and stroma type of tumors were also evaluated. (3) Results: Tumor stiffness was higher in tumors with YAP1 positivity, low TILs, and high TSR and was correlated with nuclear YAP1 expression; this correlation was observed in hormone receptor positive (HR+) tumors, as well as in tumors with non-collagen-type stroma. (4) Conclusions: We confirmed the correlation between nuclear YAP1 expression and tumor stiffness, and nuclear YAP1 expression was deemed a prognostic candidate in HR+ tumors combined with SWE-measured tumor stiffness.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4971
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by faculty research grants from Yonsei University College of Medicine [grant numbers: 6-2021-0159 and 6-2022-0123]. This research was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government [grant number: NRF-2021R1G1A109359612]. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or manuscript preparation.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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