Cosmic CARNage II: The evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function in observations and galaxy formation models

Rachel Asquith, Frazer R. Pearce, Omar Almaini, Alexander Knebe, Violeta Gonzalez-Perez, Andrew Benson, Jeremy Blaizot, Jorge Carretero, Francisco J. Castander, Andrea Cattaneo, Sofía A. Cora, Darren J. Croton, Julien E. Devriendt, Fabio Fontanot, Ignacio D. Gargiulo, Will Hartley, Bruno Henriques, Jaehyun Lee, Gary A. Mamon, Julian OnionsNelson D. Padilla, Chris Power, Chaichalit Srisawat, Adam R.H. Stevens, Peter A. Thomas, Cristian A. Vega-Martínez, Sukyoung K. Yi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present a comparison of the observed evolving galaxy stellar mass functions with the predictions of eight semi-analytic models and one halo occupation distribution model. While most models are able to fit the data at low redshift, some of them struggle to simultaneously fit observations at high redshift. We separate the galaxies into 'passive' and 'star-forming' classes and find that several of the models produce too many low-mass star-forming galaxies at high redshift compared to observations, in some cases by nearly a factor of 10 in the redshift range 2.5 < z < 3.0.We also find important differences in the implied mass of the dark matter haloes the galaxies inhabit, by comparing with halo masses inferred from observations. Galaxies at high redshift in the models are in lower mass haloes than suggested by observations, and the star formation efficiency in low-mass haloes is higher than observed. We conclude that many of the models require a physical prescription that acts to dissociate the growth of low-mass galaxies from the growth of their dark matter haloes at high redshift.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1197-1210
Number of pages14
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume480
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would further like to express special thanks to the Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT-UAM/CSIC in Madrid) for its hospitality and support, via the Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa Program under Grant No. SEV-2012-0249, during the three week workshop ‘nIFTy Cosmology’ where this work developed. We further acknowledge the financial support of the 2014 University of Western Australia Research Collaboration Award for ‘Fast Approximate Synthetic Universes for the SKA’, the ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) grant number CE110001020, and the ARC Discovery Project DP140100198. We also recognise support from the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM) for the workshop infrastructure.

Funding Information:
We thank the anonymous referee whose comments helped to greatly improve this paper. We would also like to thank Rachel Somerville, Gabriella De Lucia and Pierluigi Monaco for kindly providing useful discussion and comments. We thank CarnegieObservatories for their support and hospitality during the workshop 'Cosmic CARNage' where all the calibration issues were discussed and the roadmap laid out for the work presented here. The authors would further like to express special thanks to the Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT-UAM/CSIC in Madrid) for its hospitality and support, via the Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa Program under Grant No. SEV-2012-0249, during the three week workshop 'nIFTy Cosmology' where this work developed. We further acknowledge the financial support of the 2014 University of Western Australia Research Collaboration Award for 'Fast Approximate Synthetic Universes for the SKA', the ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) grant number CE110001020, and the ARC Discovery Project DP140100198. We also recognise support from the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM) for the workshop infrastructure. RA is funded by the Science and Technology Funding Council (STFC) through a studentship. AK is supported by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (MINECO/FEDER, UE) in Spain through grant AYA2015-63810-P. He further thanks Denison Witmer for california brown and blue. VGP acknowledges support from a European Research Council Starting Grant (DEGAS-259586). This work used the DiRAC Data Centric system at Durham University, operated by the Institute for Computational Cosmology on behalf of the STFC DiRAC HPC Facility (www.dirac.ac.uk). This equipment was funded by BIS National E-infrastructure capital grant ST/K00042X/1, STFCcapital grant ST/H008519/1, and STFC DiRAC Operations grant ST/K003267/1 and Durham University. DiRAC is part of the National E-Infrastructure. FJC acknowledges support from the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad project AYA2012-39620. SAC acknowledges funding from Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET, PIP-0387), Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnol ógica (ANPCyT, PICT-2013-0317), and Universidad Nacional de La Plata (G11-124), Argentina. DJC acknowledges receipt of a QEII Fellowship from the Australian Government. FF acknowledges financial contribution from the grants PRIN MIUR 2009 'The Intergalactic Medium as a probe of the growth of cosmic structures' and PRIN INAF 2010 'From the dawn of galaxy formation'. The work of BH was supported by Advanced Grant 246797 GALFORMOD from the European Research Council. NDP was supported by BASAL PFB-06 CATA, and Fondecyt 1150300. Part of the calculations presented here were run using the Geryon cluster at the Center forAstro-Engineering atU. Catolica, which received funding from QUIMAL 130008 and Fondequip AIC-57. CP acknowledges support of the Australian Research Council (ARC) through Future Fellowship FT130100041 and Discovery Project DP140100198. WC and CP acknowledge support of ARC DP130100117. PAT acknowledges support from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (grant number ST/L000652/1). SKY acknowledges support from the Korean National Research Foundation (NRF-2017R1A2A1A05001116). This study was performed under the umbrella of the joint collaboration between Yonsei University Observatory and the Korean Astronomy and Space Science Institute. The supercomputing time for the numerical simulations was kindly provided by KISTI (KSC-2014-G2-003). The authors contributed to this paper in the following ways: RA analysed the data, created the plots and wrote the paper along with FRP and OA. AK & CP formed part of the core team and along with FRP organised the nIFTy workshop where this work was initiated. AB organised the follow-up workshop 'Cosmic CARNage' where all the discussions about the common calibration took place and out of which this paper emerged. JO supplied the simulation, halo catalogue and merger tree for the work presented here. WH supplied the halo mass measurements from the UDS that were used in this work. The remaining authors performed the SAM or HOD modelling using their codes, in particular FJC, AC, SC, DC, FF, VGP, BH, JL, ARHS, CVM, and SKY actively ran their models. All authors proof-read and commented on the paper. This research hasmade use ofNASA's Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the arXiv preprint server.

Funding Information:
RA is funded by the Science and Technology Funding Council (STFC) through a studentship. AK is supported by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and the Fondo Europeo de De-sarrollo Regional (MINECO/FEDER, UE) in Spain through grant AYA2015-63810-P. He further thanks Denison Witmer for california brown and blue. VGP acknowledges support from a European Research Council Starting Grant (DEGAS-259586). This work used the DiRAC Data Centric system at Durham University, operated by the Institute for Computational Cosmology on behalf of the STFC DiRAC HPC Facility (www.dirac.ac.uk). This equipment was funded by BIS National E-infrastructure capital grant ST/K00042X/1, STFC capital grant ST/H008519/1, and STFC DiRAC Operations grant ST/K003267/1 and Durham University. DiRAC is part of the National E-Infrastructure. FJC acknowledges support from the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitivi-dad project AYA2012-39620. SAC acknowledges funding from Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CON-ICET, PIP-0387), Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tec-nológica (ANPCyT, PICT-2013-0317), and Universidad Nacional de La Plata (G11-124), Argentina. DJC acknowledges receipt of a QEII Fellowship from the Australian Government. FF acknowledges financial contribution from the grants PRIN MIUR 2009 ‘The Intergalactic Medium as a probe of the growth of cosmic structures’ and PRIN INAF 2010 ‘From the dawn of galaxy formation’. The work of BH was supported by Advanced Grant 246797 GALFOR-MOD from the European Research Council. NDP was supported by BASAL PFB-06 CATA, and Fondecyt 1150300. Part of the calculations presented here were run using the Geryon cluster at the Center for Astro-Engineering at U. Catolica, which received funding from QUIMAL 130008 and Fondequip AIC-57. CP acknowledges support of the Australian Research Council (ARC) through Future Fellowship FT130100041 and Discovery Project DP140100198. WC and CP acknowledge support of ARC DP130100117. PAT acknowledges support from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (grant number ST/L000652/1). SKY acknowledges support from the Korean National Research Foundation (NRF-2017R1A2A1A05001116). This study was performed under the umbrella of the joint collaboration between Yonsei University Observatory and the Korean Astronomy and Space Science Institute. The supercomputing time for the numerical simulations was kindly provided by KISTI (KSC-2014-G2-003).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Author(s).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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