Chronic activation of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs) expands the catabolic activity of both brown and white adipose tissue by engaging uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent and UCP1-independent processes. The present work examined de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and TG/glycerol dynamics in classic brown, subcutaneous "beige," and classic white adipose tissues during sustained β3-AR activation by CL 316,243 (CL) and also addressed the contribution of TG hydrolysis to these dynamics. CL treatment for 7 days dramatically increased DNL and TG turnover similarly in all adipose depots, despite great differences in UCP1 abundance. Increased lipid turnover was accompanied by the simultaneous upregulation of genes involved in FAS, glycerol metabolism, and FA oxidation. Inducible, adipocyte-specific deletion of adipose TG lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme for lipolysis, demonstrates that TG hydrolysis is required for CL-induced increases in DNL, TG turnover, and mitochondrial electron transport in all depots. Interestingly, the effect of ATGL deletion on induction of specific genes involved in FA oxidation and synthesis varied among fat depots. Overall, these studies indicate that FAS and FA oxidation are tightly coupled in adipose tissues during chronic adrenergic activation, and this effect critically depends on the activity of adipocyte ATGL.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants DK092741 (J.G.G.), DK076229 (J.G.G.), DK062292 (J.G.G.), DK090166 (E.E.K.), and U24 DK76174 (Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center of Case Western Reserve University); a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Physician-Scientist Early Career Award (E.E.K.); and a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Doctoral Research Award MDR-214349 (E.P.M .). Manuscript received 7 April 2014 and in revised form 11 August 2014. Published, JLR Papers in Press, September 5, 2014 DOI 10.1194/jlr.M050005
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology