Three-dimensional (3D) printing has showed great potential for the construction of electrochemical sensor devices. However, reported 3D-printed biosensors are usually constructed by physical adsorption and needed immobilizing reagents on the surface of functional materials. To construct the 3D-printed biosensors, the simple modification of the 3D-printed device by non-expert is mandatory to take advantage of the remote, distributed 3D printing manufacturing. Here, a 3D-printed electrode was prepared by fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing technique and activated by chemical and electrochemical methods. A glucose oxidase-based 3D-printed nanocarbon electrode was prepared by covalent linkage method to an enzyme on the surface of the 3D-printed electrode to enable biosensing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the glucose oxidase-based biosensor. Direct electrochemistry glucose oxidase-based biosensor with higher stability was then chosen to detect the two biomarkers, hydrogen peroxide and glucose by chronoamperometry. The prepared glucose oxidase-based biosensor was further used for the detection of glucose in samples of apple cider. The covalently linked glucose oxidase 3D-printed nanocarbon electrode as a biosensor showed excellent stability. This work can open new doors for the covalent modification of 3D-printed electrodes in other electrochemistry fields such as biosensors, energy, and biocatalysis. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
M.P. was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (GACR EXPRO: 19-26896X). L.W. thanks CzechNanoLab Research Infrastructure for the support of material characterizations (ID LM2018110, MEYS CR, 2020-2022). We thank the S.N. for performing the SEM and XPS characterizations, and W.G. for the discussion of scientific questions.
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry