Cross-Corner Delay Variation Model for Standard Cell Libraries

Kwangsu Kim, Byungha Joo, Young Min Park, Taeyang Jeong, Ki Tae Kim, Eui Young Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


For timing closure of logic circuits, circuit designers must perform sign-offs on a variety of process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) conditions. Designs of advanced logic circuits involve a multitude of voltage islands and operating modes, each of which requires delay characterizations at nearby PVT corners. Furthermore, advanced technologies nodes suffer from corner explosion: while the impact of PVT variations is being exacerbated, process variations are also diversifying, increasing the number of operating conditions exponentially. This paper revisits the importance of cross-corner timing estimations and proposes a delay variation model to mitigate such corner explosion. Our objective is to reduce PVT corner characterization effort for timely static timing analysis on an exploding number of operating conditions. Our proposed Decomposed Propagation Vector Variation Model (DPVVM) decomposes propagation delay and timing constraints into the driving by the receiver cell and its driver cell; by scaling them separately, delay characterization effort is reduced to a fraction of time while realizing accurate timing estimations. We also propose Multi-Dimension Recomposition (MDR) scheme, which exploits a multitude of pre-characterized corners to further improve the consistency of cross-corner timing estimations. As a result, with only 8.0% of a corner characterization effort compared to the full-characterization, DPVVM combined with MDR achieves overall cross-corner timing estimation errors of 4.8% and 5.6% for single cells and complex logic circuits - or improvements of 69% and 61% over the conventional derating method, respectively. Our proposed method's characterization overhead is 11% over the conventional derating method; the overhead is marginal, accounting for only 0.76% of a full-characterization time.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9431196
Pages (from-to)72299-72315
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The EDA tool was supported by the IC Design Education Center (IDEC), South Korea.

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Grant 2020-11-1656, in part by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) under Grant 10080722 and Grant 10080590, and in part by the Korea Semiconductor Research Consortium Support Program (KSRC) for the development of the future semiconductor device.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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