This study demonstrated the utilization of municipal sewage for high biomass production at large scale and achieved highest biomass yield of 46.3 tons and the lipid yield of 13.7 metric tons per acre in a year. The extracted crude lipid was analyzed for biodiesel production, and the yield attained was 92.5 wt% with respect to initial lipid weight. Furthermore, the lipid extracted residue obtained from two different algal biomass such as Chlorella sp. and Sargassum sp. were explored for biochar production through a slow pyrolysis technique at 400 °C. The hematite iron ore reduction with algal biochar was performed non-isothermally at 1100 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. The metallic iron synthesis from hematite iron ore involves three major steps, and they were as follows (1) in this step the Fe3O4 was synthesized from Fe2O3 at the temperature of 350–450 °C; (2) this step contain the formation of FeO from Fe3O4 at the temperature of 700–850 °C; (3) finally the formation of metallic iron (Fe) was observed at higher temperature of 850–1100 °C. Herein, we established a novel low-cost microalgae-based biorefinery approach for the production of bioenergy and residue for metallic iron production from municipal waste.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors are grateful for the financial support from the Center of Excellence in Catalysis for Bioenergy and Renewable Chemicals ( CBRC ), Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University , and the Thailand Research Fund ( TRF ) under the International Research Network: Functional Porous Materials for Catalysis and Adsorption (Contract No. IRN61W0003). The authors express their sincere gratitude to the Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology (PETROMAT), Chulalongkorn University for technical assistance. Also, the authors are grateful for the financial support from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan , R.O·C., under the grant number as MOST 106-2923-E-006-002-MY3 and MOST 108-3116-F-006-007-CC1 .
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Building and Construction
- Modelling and Simulation
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Mechanical Engineering
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering