Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model in order to increase the understanding of the influence of national culture on the relationship between organizational diversity and inclusion management and inclusion climate. Design/methodology/approach - Based upon a comprehensive review of diversity and inclusion management literature, the authors develop a conceptual model. Findings - The model delineates how national culture influences the effectiveness of diversity and inclusion management practices in establishing an inclusion climate. In particular,the authors propose that low power distance, high collectivism, low uncertainty avoidance, low masculinity, high long-term orientation, and high indulgence cultures serve as a fertile context for creating an inclusion climate. Furthermore, the authors discuss how cultural tightness-looseness amplifies or attenuates the effects of national culture. Research limitations/implications - The paper extends the understanding of the antecedents and boundary conditions of creating an inclusion climate. Future research could provide empirical evidence for the proposed relationships. Practical implications - The model creates an awareness of the ease or difficulty of establishing an inclusion climate through diversity and inclusion management practices across cultures. Recommendations for developing inclusion climates in various cultural settings are provided. Originality/value - The multi-level model enhances the understanding of how the cultural context, i.e. national cultural values and cultural tightness-looseness, influences the emergence of an organizational inclusion climate which is further suggested to positively influence organizational innovation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Business and International Management
- Cultural Studies
- Sociology and Political Science
- Strategy and Management
- Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management