Cumulative average nut consumption in relation to lower incidence of hypertension: a prospective cohort study of 10,347 adults

Sukyoung Jung, Hye Won Woo, Jinho Shin, Yu Mi Kim, Min Ho Shin, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Mi Kyung Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Maintaining optimal blood pressure (BP) levels can be an effective preventive strategy for reducing disease burden. Nut consumption may play a preventive role against hypertension, which is a lifelong condition. We aimed to prospectively examine the association between cumulative average nut consumption and the incidence of hypertension in Korean adults aged 40 years and older. Methods: A total of 10,347 participants who were free of hypertension at baseline, were included. Hypertension was defined as having a physician diagnosis and taking antihypertensive medications or having abnormal BP (systolic ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic ≥ 90 mmHg). As an exposure, cumulative average nut consumption was calculated using repeated food-frequency questionnaires (mean: 2.1). We used a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator to estimate the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for hypertension. Results: We identified 2047 incident cases of hypertension during 44,614 person-years of follow-up. Among both men and women, an average nut consumption of ≥ 1 serving/week (15 g/week]) was inversely associated with hypertension incidence (IRR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58–0.96, p for trend = 0.013 for men; IRR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.59–0.88, p for trend = 0.002 for women) and these significant associations were consistently observed across the strata of potential confounders. Conclusion: An average consumption of at least one serving (15 g) per week of peanuts, almonds, and/or pine nuts may be inversely associated with the risk of hypertension among Korean adults aged 40 years and older, in a dose–response manner.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1571-1583
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Apr

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Research Program funded by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004-E71004-00, 2005-E71011-00, 2006-E71009-00, 2007-E71002-00, 2008-E71004-00, 2009-E71006-00, 2010-E71003-00, 2011-E71002-00, 2012-E71007-00, 2013-E71008-00, 2014-E71006-01, 2016-E71001-00, 2017N-E71001-00), and by the National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korean Government (Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning) (No. NRF-2020R1A2C1004815). The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


Dive into the research topics of 'Cumulative average nut consumption in relation to lower incidence of hypertension: a prospective cohort study of 10,347 adults'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this