Upper tract urothelial carcinomas (UUT-UC) are usually aggressive tumours and require radical treatments. The standard of care for localised UUT-UC is radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgeries are currently employed in various urological procedures, including RNU. We conducted a literature search on medical databases (PubMed/ MEDLINE) using free text keywords nephroureterectomy, distal ureter, bladder cuff, urothelial carcinoma and/or robotic. In this review, we aim to provide an up-to-date status on robot-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (RAL-NU) for the management of UUT-UC. The various surgical techniques and approaches for RAL-NU and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) will be discussed and their perioperative and early oncological outcomes reported. The feasibility and safety of RAL-NU has been demonstrated in a number of studies but intermediate and long term clinical and oncological outcomes are still lacking.
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