Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) remains a challenge for paediatric nephrologists. SRNS is viewed as a heterogeneous disease entity including immune-based and monogenic aetiologies. Because SRNS is rare, treatment strategies are individualized and vary among centres of expertise. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) have been effectively used to induce remission in patients with immune-based SRNS; however, there is still no consensus on treating children who become either CNI-dependent or CNI-resistant. Rituximab is a steroid-sparing agent for patients with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome, but its efficacy in SRNS is controversial. Recently, several novel monoclonal antibodies are emerging as treatment option, but their efficacy remains to be seen. Non-immune therapies, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers, have been proven efficacious in children with SRNS and are recommended as adjuvant agents. This review summarizes and discusses our current understandings in treating children with idiopathic SRNS.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health