The essential micronutrient zinc regulates immune responses by affecting signaling pathways. In activated monocytes and macrophages, signaling networks mediate the metabolic reprogramming that meets the demands of participation in immune responses. Here, we demonstrated that cytoplasmic, bioavailable zinc was essential for promoting IL-1β production in activated human monocytes and macrophages downstream of glycolysis induced by the kinase-containing multiprotein complex mTORC1. The concentration of cytoplasmic zinc was determined by that of extracellular zinc, which was brought into cells through the zinc-specific importer Zip8. The abundance of Zip8 was increased in monocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as well as in LPS-stimulated monocytes and macrophages from healthy individuals. The mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of S6 kinase (S6K) was enhanced by zinc-mediated inhibition of PP2A, a phosphatase that targets S6K. As a result, IL-1β production was increased due to the activation of mTORC1-induced glycolysis. In monocytes of patients with RA, the expression of Zip8 and the zinc-inducible metallothionein isoform MT2A and the phosphorylation of S6K were enhanced compared with those of healthy controls. Furthermore, Zip8 expression correlated with more severe RA clinical parameters, suggesting that Zip8-mediated zinc influx is related to inflammatory conditions. These results provide insight into the role of cytoplasmic, bioavailable zinc in the metabolic reprogramming of human monocytes and macrophages in inflammatory responses.
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Jan 11|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported, in part, by grants (grant nos. NRF-2018R1A2B2006310, NRF-2021R1H1A2012456, and 2021M3A9I2080493 to W.-W.L.) from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT), Republic of Korea, and by a grant (no. 0420210470: 2021-1688 to W.-W.L.) from the Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) Research Fund.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology