Black phosphorus has shown great potential in many applications such as energy, optoelectronics and bio/sensing. However, its toxicity study is still in its infancy. Here, the cytotoxicity of black phosphorus prepared by two different synthesis methods, i.e. vapour growth transport and high pressure conversion, are investigated. Precursor and intermediate materials, namely red and violet phosphorus, are also included in this study for a better understanding on the toxicity changes that occurs during the transformation process. We found that the cytotoxicity of phosphorus materials could be influenced by their degree of exfoliation arising from differences in morphology, as well as their extent of oxidation. These findings are important in preparing safe phosphorus materials for real life applications.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
A.C.F. and N.M.L acknowledge the Singapore's National Research Foundation ( NRF ) under its Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise (CREATE) programme for funding. N. M. L. appreciates the RealTime-Glo™ Annexin V Apoptosis and Necrosis Assay sample from Promega. Z.S. thanks the Czech Science Foundation (GACR No.17-11456S) and Neuron Foundation for Scientific Support. This work was supported by the project Advanced Functional Nanorobots (reg. No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000444 financed by the EFRR).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)