The current paper examines the heavy particle statistics modification by two-way interaction in particle-laden isotropic turbulence in an attempt to interpret their statistics modification using the information of modulated turbulence. Moreover, we clarify the distinctions of this modification between decaying and stationary turbulence as an extension of our previous work [A. H. Abdelsamie and C. Lee, "Decaying versus stationary turbulence in particle-laden isotropic turbulence: Turbulence modulation mechanism," Phys. Fluids24, 015106 (2012)10.1063/1.3678332]. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) was carried out using 1283 grid points at a Taylor micro-scale Reynolds number of Rλ ~ 70. The effect of O(106) solid particles with a different Stokes number (St) was implemented as a point-force approximation in the Navier-Stokes equation. Various statistics associated with particle dispersion are investigated, and the auto-correlations models which was provided by Jung et al. ["Behavior of heavy particles in isotropic turbulence," Phys. Rev. E77, 016307 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevE.77.016307] are extended in the current paper. DNS results reveal that the two-way coupling interaction enhances the fluid and heavy particle auto-correlation functions and the alignment between their velocity vectors for all Stokes numbers in decaying and stationary turbulence, but for different reasons. The modification mechanisms of particle dispersion statistics in stationary turbulence are different from those in decaying turbulence depending on the Stokes number, particularly for St <1.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the WCU Program, the ERC program and the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (Grant Nos. R31-2008-000-10049-0, 20090093134, and 2010-0023303). Most computations were carried out at the KISTI Supercomputing Center.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computational Mechanics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes