Decellularization is a technique to remove cellular components from native tissues, which could reduce immune reactions to the scaffolds. Decellularized matrices are valuable for tissue engineering, as they preserve tissue-specific structural, mechanical, and biochemical microenvironments, while promoting cellular engraftment and functions in the matrix. So far, various tissues have been decellularized by combinations of mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic processes and utilized in preparing bioscaffolds to provide tissue-specific environments for various cell types, including primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells. In addition, decellularized matrices could be manipulated into several formats according to the final application, such as tissue-engineering scaffolds, artificial organs, cell culture matrices, and transplantation carriers. In this chapter, we describe various types of decellularized tissue matrices and their extensive use in regenerative medicine, including reconstruction of artificial organs and regeneration of damaged tissues.