Most network data are collected from partially observable networks with both missing nodes and missing edges, for example, due to limited resources and privacy settings specified by users on social media. Thus, it stands to reason that inferring the missing parts of the networks by performing network completion should precede downstream applications. However, despite this need, the recovery of missing nodes and edges in such incomplete networks is an insufficiently explored problem due to the modeling difficulty, which is much more challenging than link prediction that only infers missing edges. In this paper, we present DeepNC, a novel method for inferring the missing parts of a network based on a deep generative model of graphs. Specifically, our method first learns a likelihood over edges via an autoregressive generative model, and then identifies the graph that maximizes the learned likelihood conditioned on the observable graph topology. Moreover, we propose a computationally efficient DeepNC algorithm that consecutively finds individual nodes that maximize the probability in each node generation step, as well as an enhanced version using the expectation-maximization algorithm. The runtime complexities of both algorithms are shown to be almost linear in the number of nodes in the network. We empirically demonstrate the superiority of DeepNC over state-of-the-art network completion approaches.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence|
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Apr 1|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 1979-2012 IEEE.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
- Computational Theory and Mathematics
- Artificial Intelligence
- Applied Mathematics