Definitive Insight into the Graphite Oxide Reduction Mechanism by Deuterium Labeling

Ondřej Jankovský, Petr Šimek, Jan Luxa, David Sedmidubský, Ivo Tomandl, Anna MacKová, Romana Mikšová, Petr Malinský, Martin Pumera, Zdeněk Sofer

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Abstract

The reduction of graphite oxide is one of the most important reactions in the production of graphene in gram quantities. The mechanisms of these widely used reactions are poorly understood. The mechanism of the chemical reduction of two different graphite oxides prepared by the chlorate (Hofmann method) and permanganate methods (Hummers method) has been investigated. Three different reduction agents, lithium tetrahydridoaluminate, sodium tetrahydridoborate, and lithium tetrahydridoborate, as well as their deuterated counterparts, were used for the reduction of graphite oxide. Reduced graphite oxides were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, elemental combustion analysis, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and simultaneous thermal analysis. The concentration of boron incorporated into graphene was measured by prompt gamma activation analysis. Rutherford back-scattering spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection analysis were used for the determination of the elemental composition, including deuterium concentration, as evidence of C-H bond formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1399-1407
Number of pages9
JournalChemPlusChem
Volume80
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Sep 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)

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    Jankovský, O., Šimek, P., Luxa, J., Sedmidubský, D., Tomandl, I., MacKová, A., Mikšová, R., Malinský, P., Pumera, M., & Sofer, Z. (2015). Definitive Insight into the Graphite Oxide Reduction Mechanism by Deuterium Labeling. ChemPlusChem, 80(9), 1399-1407. https://doi.org/10.1002/cplu.201500168