Background Delta neutrophil index (DNI) can be used as a biomarker for infection to predict patient outcomes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between DNI and clinical outcomes in trauma patients who underwent abdominal surgery. Materials and methods We retrospectively analyzed injured patients who underwent emergent abdominal surgery in the regional trauma center of Wonju Severance Christian Hospital between March 2016 and May 2018. Patient characteristics, operation type, preoperative and postoperative laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was performed for risk factors associated with mortality. Results Overall, 169 patients (mean age, 53.8 years; 66.3% male) were enrolled in this study, of which 19 (11.2%) died. The median injury severity score (ISS) was 12. The non-survivors had a significantly higher ISS [25(9-50) vs. 10(1-50), p<0.001] and serum lactate level (9.00±4.10 vs. 3.04±2.23, p<0.001) and more frequent shock (63.2% vs 23.3%, p<0.001) and solid organ injury (52.6% vs. 25.3%, p = 0.013) than the survivors. There were significant differences in postoperative DNI between the two groups (p<0.009 immediate postoperation, p = 0.001 on postoperative day 1 [POD1], and p = 0.013 on POD2). Logistic regression analysis showed that the independent factors associated with mortality were postoperative lactate level (odds ratio [OR] 1.926, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.101- 3.089, p = 0.007), postoperative sequential organ failure assessment score (OR 1.593, 95% CI 1.160-2.187, p = 0.004), and DNI on POD1 (OR 1.118, 95% CI 1.028-1.215, p = 0.009). The receiver operating characteristics curve demonstrated that the area under the curve of DNI on POD1 was 0.887 (cut-off level: 7.1%, sensitivity 85.7%, and specificity 84.4%). Conclusions Postoperative DNI may be a useful biomarker to predict mortality in trauma patients who underwent emergent abdominal surgery.
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© 2020 Bang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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