As an alternative to high-cost shoe insole pressure sensors that measure the insole pressure distribution and calculate the center of pressure (CoP), researchers developed a foot sensor with FSR sensors on the bottom of the insole. However, the calculations for the center of pressure and ground reaction force (GRF) were not sufficiently accurate because of the fundamental limitations, fixed coordinates and narrow sensing areas, which cannot cover the whole insole. To address these issues, in this paper, we describe an algorithm of virtual forces and corresponding coordinates with an artificial neural network (ANN) for low-cost flexible insole pressure measurement sensors. The proposed algorithm estimates the magnitude of the GRF and the location of the foot plantar CoP. To compose the algorithm, we divided the insole area into six areas and created six virtual forces and the corresponding coordinates. We used the ANN algorithm with the input of magnitudes of FSR sensors, 1st and 2nd derivatives of them to estimate the virtual forces and coordinates. Eight healthy males were selected for data acquisition. They performed an experiment composed of the following motions: standing with weight shifting, walking with 1 km/h and 2 km/h, squatting and getting up from a sitting position to a standing position. The ANN for estimating virtual forces and corresponding coordinates was fitted according to those data, converted to c script, and downloaded to a microcontroller for validation experiments in real time. The results showed an average RMSE the whole experiment of 31.154 N for GRF estimation and 8.07 mm for CoP calibration. The correlation coefficients of the algorithm were 0.94 for GRF, 0.92 and 0.76 for the X and Y coordinate respectively.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIP) (No. NRF-2017M1A3A3A02016507).
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering