This paper presents the categorization and restoration of defective lines developed in pushbroom images. About 100 of the 3000 SPOT 4 SWIR detectors malfunction, which degrades image quality. Conventional methods have difficulties in effectively detecting and restoring defective lines, because they ignore the heterogeneity of the ground surface and the presence of sporadically unstable detectors with gain and offset that vary during a scan. While all defective lines have previously been considered as a single type, here they are categorized into three types according to the variation pattern in the scanning direction: constant defective lines, irregular defective lines, and irrecoverable defective lines. The detection procedure utilizes summed data and standard deviation data that consist of abnormal peaks originating from defective lines and a slowly varying baseline reflecting the surface characteristics within the image. The defective lines are detected by finding abnormal peaks, and classified and restored by using either a moment-matching method or interpolation, depending upon their types. Three SPOT 4 images were used to test and evaluate the performance of the proposed method. From the test results, the constant defective line was the most common type, comprising about 60%, while the irregular defective lines caused serious image degradation because of the difficulty of detecting and classifying them. Commission and omission errors were less than 10% and detection accuracy was higher than 90%. The analysis of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) showed that the low SNR created by the defective lines was effectively removed. Our method gave a significant improvement of the detection and restoration capability.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received September 15, 2009; revised March 02, 2010. First published March 29, 2010; current version published July 16, 2010. This work was supported by the National Space Lab program through the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (M105DA000004-08D0100-0011A) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2009-0067697). The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Dr. John Kerekes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design