This study was designed to prospectively examine whether peptide nucleic acid clamping-assisted fluorescence melting curve analysis (PANAMutyper™) is feasible for the detection of activating and acquired resistant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in plasma. Patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring activating EGFR mutations who were scheduled to undergo EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) were enrolled between September 2011 and March 2015. A total of 102 patients with EGFR-mutated lung cancer were enrolled, 53 had available plasma samples at disease progression, and 28 underwent serial plasma sampling during EGFR-TKI treatment. EGFR-TKI-sensitizing and T790M mutations were detected in the plasma of 68.6% (70/102) at baseline and 30.2% (16/53) at disease progression, respectively. The concordance rates for matched tissue and plasma samples were 80.4% and 90.2% for E19del and L858R mutations at baseline and 56.3% for T790M mutation at disease progression. The sustained presence of plasma EGFR mutations four weeks after EGFR-TKI predicted a poor objective response rate (30.0% vs. 87.5%, P = 0.025), as well as worse progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 4.381) and overall survival (HR, 5.475). Longitudinal analysis could detect T790M mutations earlier than disease progression based on imaging study (median time from appearance of T790M in plasma samples to progression at imaging scan, 103 days). In conclusion, PANAMutyper™ is reliable for detecting activating and acquired resistant EGFR mutation in plasma, and predicts responses to EGFR-TKI via longitudinal monitoring of EGFR mutation during treatment.
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