Deterministic Assembly of Arrays of Lithographically Defined WS2 and MoS2 Monolayer Features Directly from Multilayer Sources into Van der Waals Heterostructures

Vu Nguyen, Hannah Gramling, Clarissa Towle, Wan Li, Der Hsien Lien, Hyungjin Kim, Daryl C. Chrzan, Ali Javey, Ke Xu, Joel Ager, Hayden Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


One of the major challenges in the van der Waals (vdW) integration of two-dimensional (2D) materials is achieving high-yield and high-throughput assembly of predefined sequences of monolayers into heterostructure arrays. Mechanical exfoliation has recently been studied as a promising technique to transfer monolayers from a multilayer source synthesized by other techniques, allowing the deposition of a wide variety of 2D materials without exposing the target substrate to harsh synthesis conditions. Although a variety of processes have been developed to exfoliate the 2D materials mechanically from the source and place them deterministically onto a target substrate, they can typically transfer only either a wafer-scale blanket or one small flake at a time with uncontrolled size and shape. Here, we present a method to assemble arrays of lithographically defined monolayer WS2 and MoS2 features from multilayer sources and directly transfer them in a deterministic manner onto target substrates. This exfoliate-align-release process - without the need of an intermediate carrier substrate - is enabled by combining a patterned, gold-mediated exfoliation technique with a new optically transparent, heat-releasable adhesive. WS2/MoS2 vdW heterostructure arrays produced by this method show the expected interlayer exciton between the monolayers. Light-emitting devices using WS2 monolayers were also demonstrated, proving the functionality of the fabricated materials. Our work demonstrates a significant step toward developing mechanical exfoliation as a scalable dry transfer technique for the manufacturing of functional, atomically thin materials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number041006 EN
JournalJournal of Micro and Nano-Manufacturing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Dec 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Jiachen Li for help with Raman measurements. The nanofabrication was supported by the National Science Foundation, Award 1636256: SNM: Scalable Nano-manufacturing of 2D Electronic Materials and Devices Using Automated Exfoliation. Optical characterization was supported by the Electronic Materials Program, funded by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division of the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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