Development and clinical applications of the dried blood spot method for therapeutic drug monitoring of anti-epileptic drugs

Kyoung Lok Min, Jae Yeoul Ryu, Min Jung Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have various pharmacokinetic profiles, inter-individual variabilities, high possibilities of drug-drug interactions and narrow therapeutic indices. To provide optimal treatment for patients, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is necessary. However, TDM requires sufficient quantities of blood samples to measure drug concentrations. Therefore, TDM could be a burden, particularly in paediatric cases. A good alternative that overcomes these disadvantages is the dried blood spot (DBS) method, which is simple, convenient to use and less invasive, requiring a lower quantity of blood than traditional blood sampling methods. However, the DBS method is affected by haematocrit (Hct) levels to varying extents depending on the drug properties. In addition, different papers with varying characteristics are available for use when applying the DBS method. Therefore, it has not yet been applied to TDM in clinical practice. To achieve this, several steps are required, including method development, method validation and clinical validation. Currently, the development status of the DBS method is different for each AED and unclear. Therefore, we assessed the development status of the following 19 AEDs in 26 studies: lamotrigine, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenytoin, topiramate, carbamazepine, carbamazepine epoxide, gabapentin, phenobarbital, pregabalin, clobazam, clonazepam, ethosuximide, felbamate, monohydroxycarbamazepine, nitrazepam, rufinamide, vigabatrin and zonisamide. Among them, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate and valproic acid have been developed such that they are nearly available for TDM. In addition, Whatman 903 Protein Saver Cards and concentration analysis by liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer were used most often.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBasic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1

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Dried Blood Spot Testing
Drug Monitoring
Blood
Monitoring
Pharmaceutical Preparations
etiracetam
zonisamide
felbamate
Carbamazepine
Valproic Acid
Nitrazepam
Ethosuximide
Vigabatrin
Clonazepam
Phenytoin
Phenobarbital
Drug Interactions
Hematocrit
Liquid Chromatography
Drug interactions

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

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abstract = "Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have various pharmacokinetic profiles, inter-individual variabilities, high possibilities of drug-drug interactions and narrow therapeutic indices. To provide optimal treatment for patients, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is necessary. However, TDM requires sufficient quantities of blood samples to measure drug concentrations. Therefore, TDM could be a burden, particularly in paediatric cases. A good alternative that overcomes these disadvantages is the dried blood spot (DBS) method, which is simple, convenient to use and less invasive, requiring a lower quantity of blood than traditional blood sampling methods. However, the DBS method is affected by haematocrit (Hct) levels to varying extents depending on the drug properties. In addition, different papers with varying characteristics are available for use when applying the DBS method. Therefore, it has not yet been applied to TDM in clinical practice. To achieve this, several steps are required, including method development, method validation and clinical validation. Currently, the development status of the DBS method is different for each AED and unclear. Therefore, we assessed the development status of the following 19 AEDs in 26 studies: lamotrigine, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenytoin, topiramate, carbamazepine, carbamazepine epoxide, gabapentin, phenobarbital, pregabalin, clobazam, clonazepam, ethosuximide, felbamate, monohydroxycarbamazepine, nitrazepam, rufinamide, vigabatrin and zonisamide. Among them, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate and valproic acid have been developed such that they are nearly available for TDM. In addition, Whatman 903 Protein Saver Cards and concentration analysis by liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer were used most often.",
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