Long-lasting, high-resolution neural interfaces that are ultrathin and flexible are essential for precise brain mapping and high-performance neuroprosthetic systems. Scaling to sample thousands of sites across large brain regions requires integrating powered electronics to multiplex many electrodes to a few external wires. However, existing multiplexed electrode arrays rely on encapsulation strategies that have limited implant lifetimes. Here, we developed a flexible, multiplexed electrode array, called “Neural Matrix,” that provides stable in vivo neural recordings in rodents and nonhuman primates. Neural Matrix lasts over a year and samples a centimeter-scale brain region using over a thousand channels. The long-lasting encapsulation (projected to last at least 6 years), scalable device design, and iterative in vivo optimization described here are essential components to overcoming current hurdles facing next-generation neural technologies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Y.H. acknowledges support from the NSF (CMMI-1635443). Y.X. gratefully acknowledges support from the Ryan Fellowship and the Northwestern University International Institute for Nanotechnology. K.S. and H.F. acknowledge support from a Samsung Global Research Outreach Award. F.V. acknowledges support from the Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy Taking Flight Award. K.J.Y. acknowledges support from the support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant nos. NRF-2018M3A7B4071109 and NRF-2019R1A2C2086085). B.H.K. acknowledges support from Creative Materials Discovery Program and Nano?Material Technology Development Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by Ministry of Science and ICT (NRF-2018M3D1A1058972, no. 2019R1G1A1100737, 2009-0082580). This work was funded by a National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke award U01 NS099697 to J.V., B.P., J.A.R., and K.S.; a National Science Foundation award CCF1422914 to J.V.; a National Science Foundation award CCF-1564051 to J.V.; a Steven W. Smith Fellowship to B.B.; a L'Oreal USA for Women in Science Fellowship to A.L.O.; and Defense Advanced Research Programs Agency awards DARPA-BAA-16-09 to K.S., B.P., J.A.R., and J.V., and DARPA-BAA-13-20 to B.P., J.A.R., and J.V.
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