Existing swallowing evaluation methods using X-ray or endoscopy are qualitative. The present study develops a swallowing monitoring and assessment system (SMAS) that is nonintrusive and quantitative. The SMAS comprises an ultrasonic Doppler sensor array, a microphone, and an inertial measurement unit to measure ultrasound signals originating only from swallowing activities. Ultrasound measurements were collected for combinations of two viscosity conditions (water and yogurt) and two volume conditions (3 mL and 9 mL) from 24 healthy participants (14 males and 10 females; age = 30.5 ± 7.6 years) with no history of swallowing disorders and were quantified for 1st peak amplitude, 2nd peak amplitude, peak-to-peak (PP) time interval, duration, energy, and proportion of two or more peaks. The peak amplitudes and energy significantly decreased by viscosity and the PP time interval and duration increased by volume. The correlation between the time measures were higher (r = 0.78) than that of the amplitude measures (r = 0.30), and the energy highly correlated with the 1st peak amplitude (r = 0.86). The proportion of two or more peaks varied from 76.8% to 87.9% by viscosity and volume. Further research is needed to examine the concurrent validity and generalizability of the ultrasonic Doppler sensor-based SMAS.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was jointly supported by the research programs of the National Research Foundation (NRF) of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2017M3C1B6070526; 2018R1A2A2A05023299; 2018K1A3A1A20026539), the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy (R0004840, 2020), the Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, and the Korean Health Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI10C0626).
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Information Systems
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering