Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a novel on-site virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR) derived from coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Materials and Methods: We analyzed 100 vessels from 57 patients who had undergone CTA followed by invasive FFR during coronary angiography. Coronary lumen segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction were conducted using a completely automated algorithm, and parallel computing based vFFR prediction was performed. Lesion-specific ischemia based on FFR was defined as significant at ≤0.8, as well as ≤0.75, and obstructive CTA stenosis was defined that ≥50%. The diagnostic performance of vFFR was compared to invasive FFR at both ≤0.8 and ≤0.75. Results: The average computation time was 12 minutes per patient. The correlation coefficient (r) between vFFR and invasive FFR was 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 0.83], and Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean bias of 0.005 (95% CI-0.011 to 0.021) with 95% limits of agreement of-0.16 to 0.17 between vFFR and FFR. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 78.0%, 87.1%, 72.5%, 58.7%, and 92.6%, respectively, using the FFR cutoff of 0.80. They were 87.0%, 95.0%, 80.0%, 54.3%, and 98.5%, respectively, with the FFR cutoff of 0.75. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve of vFFR versus obstructive CTA stenosis was 0.88 versus 0.61 for the FFR cutoff of 0.80, respectively; it was 0.94 versus 0.62 for the FFR cutoff of 0.75. Conclusion: Our novel, fully automated, on-site vFFR technology showed excellent diagnostic performance for the detection of lesion-specific ischemia.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Institute for Information & Communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. R0101-16-0171, Development of Multi-modality Imaging and 3D Simulation-Based Integrative Diagnosis-Treatment Support Software System for Cardiovascular Diseases).
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