Purpose: To evaluate the value of breast MRI in analysis of papillomas of the breast. Materials and Methods: From 1996 to 2004, 94 patients underwent surgery due to papillomas of the breast. Among them, 21 patients underwent 3D fast low angle shot (FLASH) dynamic breast MRI. Eight masses were palpable and 11 of 21 patients had nipple discharge. Two radiologists indifferently analyzed the location, size of the lesions and shape, margin of the masses, multiplicity and ductal relation. The MRI findings were categorized according to breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. The amount and pattern of enhancement and associated findings were also evaluated according to BI-RADS. We then compared the MRI findings with galactography, mammography and breast ultrasonography (US) and examined histopathologic correlation. Results: On breast MRI, the lesion size was 0.4-1.59 cm, and 18 patients showed subareolar location. On 4.25 cm (mean 1.54) dynamic enhanced images, imaging findings showed mass (n = 10), intracystic mass (n = 3), focus (n = 5), ductal enhancement (n = 2), and segmental enhancement (n = 1). In cases of the masses, the shapes of the masses were round (n = 4), lobulated (n = 3), and irregular (n = 6), and margins were circumscribed (n = 6), microlobulated (n = 5), and indistinct (n = 2). The enhancement patterns were homogeneous enhancement (n = 7), heterogeneous (n = 3) or rim enhancement (n = 3). Conclusion: The contrast enhanced dynamic breast MRI was highly sensitive for diagnosis of breast papillomas. MRI could play a key role in the pre-operative work-up for multiple papillomas and papillomatosis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The CUORE experiment (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events, see [1, 2]) is a nuclear physics experiment funded by several agencies, among which the National Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Science Foundation (NSF, USA). The experiment is set up in the Gran Sasso National (Italian) Laboratory (LNGS), an underground facility in a highly seismic zone. In fact, the laboratory is located in a gallery beneath the Gran Sasso mountain, not far from the city of L’Aquila: that zone has been hit by a destructive earthquake in 2009 (MMS 6.3) and is currently involved in the earthquake swarm that follows the Amatrice earthquake (August 2016, MMS 6.2). In spite of the fact that the underground gallery seems to mitigate the seismic effects [3, 4], there is a major concern on the structural safety of all the experiments hosted by LNGS. The complexity of the structures, along with the strict requirements from the point of view of experimental physics, calls for the application of computational tools at the cutting-edge of technology.
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