Dietary Glucose Consumption Promotes RALDH Activity in Small Intestinal CD103+CD11b+ Dendritic Cells

Hyun Ja Ko, Sung Wook Hong, Ravi Verma, Jisun Jung, Minji Lee, Nahyun Kim, Daeun Kim, Charles D. Surh, Kwang Soon Kim, Dipayan Rudra, Sin Hyeog Im

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Retinal dehydrogenase (RALDH) enzymatic activities catalyze the conversion of vitamin A to its metabolite Retinoic acid (RA) in intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) and promote immunological tolerance. However, precise understanding of the exogenous factors that act as initial trigger of RALDH activity in these cells is still evolving. By using germ-free (GF) mice raised on an antigen free (AF) elemental diet, we find that certain components in diet are critically required to establish optimal RALDH expression and activity, most prominently in small intestinal CD103+CD11b+ DCs (siLP-DCs) right from the beginning of their lives. Surprisingly, systematic screens using modified diets devoid of individual dietary components indicate that proteins, starch and minerals are dispensable for this activity. On the other hand, in depth comparison between subtle differences in dietary composition among different dietary regimes reveal that adequate glucose concentration in diet is a critical determinant for establishing RALDH activity specifically in siLP-DCs. Consequently, pre-treatment of siLP-DCs, and not mesenteric lymph node derived MLNDCs with glucose, results in significant enhancement in the in vitro generation of induced Regulatory T (iTreg) cells. Our findings reveal previously underappreciated role of dietary glucose concentration in establishing regulatory properties in intestinal DCs, thereby extending a potential therapeutic module against intestinal inflammation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1897
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Aug 11

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Tae-Kyu Kim, Jung-Wook Seo, Sung-Hwan Na, Hee-Jung Woo, and Hae-Jin Jung for technical support; Jonathan Sprent, You Jeong Lee, and Jae-Ho Cho for discussions. Funding. This work was supported by Institute for Basic Science [Project Code: IBS-R005-D1], POSCO GREEN SCIENCE Research Fund [Project no. 2019Y073], and ImmunoBiome Inc [Project no. IMB-2020-OR101].

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2020 Ko, Hong, Verma, Jung, Lee, Kim, Kim, Surh, Kim, Rudra and Im.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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