The nose is the first respiratory barrier to external pathogens, allergens, pollutants, or cigarette smoke, and vigorous immune responses are triggered when external pathogens come in contact with the nasal epithelium. The mucosal epithelial cells of the nose are essential to the innate immune response against external pathogens and transmit signals that modulate the adaptive immune response. The upper and lower airways share many physiological and immunological features, but there are also numerous differences. It is crucial to understand these differences and their contribution to pathophysiology in order to optimize treatments for inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. This review summarizes important differences in the embryological development, histological features, microbiota, immune responses, and cellular subtypes of mucosal epithelial cells of the nose and lungs.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by grants from the Global Research Laboratory Program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, Information and Communications Technology (ICT), and Future Planning grant 2016K1A1A2910779 (J.-H.Y.).
© 2021, International Rhinologic Society. All rights reserved.
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