MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are dysregulated in many tumors; however, miRNA regulation in parathyroid tumors remains poorly understood. To identify differentially expressed miRNAs between sporadic and hereditary parathyroid tumors and to analyze their correlation with clinicopathological features, a microarray containing 887 miRNAs was performed; then, the differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR using 25 sporadic and 12 hereditary parathyroid tumors and 24 normal parathyroid tissue samples. A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was applied to evaluate the utility of the miRNAs for distinguishing parathyroid tumor types. Compared to the miRNAs in the normal parathyroid tissues, 10 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the sporadic and hereditary parathyroid tumors. Seven of these miRNAs (let-7i, miR-365, miR-125a-3p, miR-125a-5p, miR-142-3p, miR-193b, and miR-199b-5p) were validated in the parathyroid tumor samples. Among these miRNAs, only miR-199b-5p was differentially expressed (P < 0.001); miR-199b-5p was significantly downregulated and negatively associated with PTH levels (γ = −0.579, P = 0.002) in the sporadic tumors but was upregulated in the hereditary tumors. This miRNA showed 67% sensitivity and 100% specificity for distinguishing sporadic and hereditary parathyroid tumors. These results reveal altered expression of a miRNA between sporadic and hereditary parathyroid tumors and the potential role of miR-199b-5p as a novel biomarker for distinguishing these two types of parathyroid tumors.
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