Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms have been the focus of considerable debate in recent years. We histologically classified 70 appendiceal mucinous neoplasms into three categories: 32 mucinous adenoma, 23 mucinous neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential, and 15 mucinous adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemistry was performed for 24 proteins in different functional categories, specifically, oncogenic proteins (bcl-2, Β-catenin, CEA, C-erbB2, c-kit, Cox-2, Cyclin D1, EGFR, Ki-67, NF-B, VEGF), tumor suppressors (E-cadherin, FHIT, hMLH1, p53, p63, smad4), cell-cycle regulators (p21, p27, p16), and mucin proteins (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6). Our data showed that 9 out of the 24 proteins were more frequently altered in the mucinous adenocarcinoma group than in the mucinous adenoma group (P0.05), including Β-catenin (13% in mucinous adenoma vs 60% in mucinous adenocarcinoma), CyclinD1 (44 vs 87%), Ki-67 (high labeling index: 31 vs 67%), NF-B (19 vs 60%), VEGF (16 vs 87%), E-cadherin (0 vs 47%), p53 (6 vs 40%), MUC2 (9 vs 67%), and MUC5AC (3 vs 40%). The distinct immunoexpression profile of mucinous neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential was placed between those of mucinous adenoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma (P0.05). Moreover, the mucinous adenoma, mucinous neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential, and mucinous adenocarcinoma categories displayed differences in terms of the number of altered markers among the nine proteins (P0.05; mean 1.4 vs 2.6 vs 5.5, respectively). In mucinous adenocarcinoma, the p53 status was related to disease-free survival and overall survival of patients (P0.05, both). NF-B status and the number of altered protein markers made statistically marginal impacts on disease-free survival; also Β-catenin loss, on overall survival of patients. In conclusion, protein immunoexpression profiles may facilitate the classification of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms. In our study, the three tumor categories of mucinous adenoma, mucinous neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential, and mucinous adenocarcinoma exhibited distinct immunoexpression profiles. Five and more altered protein markers, p53 overexpression, NF-B positivity, and Β-catenin loss were predictive factors of adverse clinical outcomes in appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinomas.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank SuperBioChips Laboratories (Seoul, Korea) for technical assistance. This work was supported by the Seoul National University Boramae Hospital Grant.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine