Mycobacteruim kansasii occasionally causes disseminated infection with poor outcome in immunocompromised patients. We report the first case of disseminated M. kansasii infection associated with multiple skin lesions in a 48-yr-old male with myelodysplastic syndrome. The patient continuously had taken glucocorticoid during 21 months and had multiple skin lesions developed before 9 months without complete resolution until admission. Skin and mediastinoscopic paratracheal lymph node (LN) biopsies showed necrotizing granuloma with many acid-fast bacilli. M. kansasii was cultured from skin, sputum, and paratracheal LNs. The patient had been treated successfully with isoniazid, rifampin, ethmabutol, and clarithromycin, but died due to small bowel obstruction. Our case emphasizes that chronic skin lesions can lead to severe, disseminated M. kansasii infection in an immunocompromised patient. All available cases of disseminated M. kansasii infection in non HIV-infected patients reported since 1953 are comprehensively reviewed.
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