Background: The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) on the cell surface transmits inflammatory signals. A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, RAGE possesses the V, C1, and C2 ectodomains that collectively constitute the receptor's extracellular structure. However, the molecular mechanism of RAGE biogenesis remains unclear, impeding efforts to control RAGE signaling through cellular regulation. Methodology and Result: We used co-immunoprecipitation and crossing-linking to study RAGE oligomerization and found that RAGE forms dimer-based oligomers. Via non-reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mutagenesis, we found that cysteines 259 and 301 within the C2 domain form intermolecular disulfide bonds. Using a modified tripartite split GFP complementation strategy and confocal microscopy, we also found that RAGE dimerization occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and that RAGE mutant molecules without the double disulfide bridges are unstable, and are subjected to the ER-associated degradation. Conclusion: Disulfide bond-mediated RAGE dimerization in the ER is the critical step of RAGE biogenesis. Without formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds in the C2 region, RAGE fails to reach cell surface. Significance: This is the first report of RAGE intermolecular disulfide bond.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)