Background and Objective: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is a well-known growth factor that can induce robust bone formation, and recent studies have shown that rhBMP-2-induced osteogenesis is closely related to adipogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the dose- and time-dependent effects of rhBMP-2 on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human alveolar bone-derived stromal cells (hABCs) in vivo and in vitro. Material and Methods: hABCs were isolated and cultured, and then transplanted using a carrier treated either with or without rhBMP-2 (100μg/mL) into an ectopic subcutaneous mouse model. Comprehensive histologic and histometric analyses were performed after an 8-wk healing period. To further understand the dose-dependent (0, 10, 50, 200, 500 and 1000ng/mL) and time-dependent (0, 3, 5, 7 and 14d) effects of rhBMP-2 on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of hABCs were evaluated, and the expression of related mRNAs, including those for alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 and lipoprotein lipase, were assessed using quantitative RT-PCR. Results: rhBMP-2 significantly promoted the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of hABCs in vivo, and gradually increased both the osteogenic and adipogenic potential in a dose- and time-dependent manner with minimal deviation in vitro. The expression of osteogenesis- and adipogenesis-associated mRNAs were concomitantly up-regulated by rhBMP-2. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that rhBMP-2 significantly enhanced the adipogenic as well as the osteogenic potential of hABCs in dose- and time-dependent manner. The control of adipogenic differentiation of hABCs should be considered when regenerating the alveolar bone using rhBMP-2.
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