A multilayer organic light-emitting device (OLED) has been fabricated with a thin (0.3 nm) lithium fluoride (LiF) layer inserted inside an electron transport layer (ETL), aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3). The LiF electron injection layer (EIL) has not been used at an Al/Alq3 interface in the device on purpose to observe properties of LiF. The electron injection-limited OLED with the LiF layer inside 50 nm Alq3 at a one forth, a half or a three forth position assures two different enhancing properties of LiF. When the LiF layer is positioned closer to the Al cathode, the injection-limited OLED shows enhanced injection by Al interdiffusion. The Al interdiffusion at least up to 12.5 nm inside Alq3 rules out the possible insulating buffer model in a small molecule bottom-emission (BE) OLED with a thin, less than one nanometer, electron injection layer (EIL). If the position is further away from the Al cathode, the Al diffusion reaches the LiF layer no longer and the device shows the electroluminescence (EL) enhancement without an enhanced injection. The suggested mechanism of LiF EL efficiency enhancer is that the thin LiF layer induces carrier trap sites and the trapped charges alters the distribution of the field inside the OLED and, consequently, gives a better recombination of the device. By substituting the Alq3 ETL region with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), all of the electron injection from the cathode of Al/CuPc interface, the induced recombination at the Alq3 emitting layer (EML) by the LiF EL efficiency enhancer, and the operating voltage reduction from high conductive CuPc can be achieved. The enhanced property reaches 100 mA/cm2 of current density and 1000 cd/m2 of luminance at 5 V with its turn-on slightly larger than 2 V. The enhanced device is as good as our previously reported non-injection limited LiF EIL device [Yeonjin Yi, Seong Jun Kang, Kwanghee Cho, Jong Mo Koo, Kyul Han, Kyongjin Park, Myungkeun Noh, Chung Nam Whang, Kwangho Jeong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005) 213502].
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Seoul Science Fellowship of the Seoul Metropolitan Government, the Korea Research Foundation Grant funded by Korea Government (MOEHRD, Basic Research Promotion Fund) (KRF-2005-015-C00130), and BK21 project of the Korea Research Foundation (KRF).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Materials Chemistry