The Maillard reaction products are known to be effective in chemoprevention. Here, we focused on the anti-cancer effects of (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal on in vitro and in vivo colon cancer. We analysed the anti-cancer activity of (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2- butenal on colon cancer cells by using cell cycle and apoptosis analysis. To elucidate it's mechanism, NF-jB DNA binding activity, docking model as well as pull-down assay. Further, a xenograft model of colon cancer was studied to test the in vivo effects of (E)-2,4-bis(phydroxyphenyl)- 2-butenal. (E)-2,4-Bis(p- hydroxyphenyl)- 2-butenal inhibited colon cancer cells (SW620 and HCT116) growth followed by induction of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner via down-regulation of NF-jB activity. In docking model as well as pull-down assay, (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal directly binds to three amino acid residues of IKKb, thereby inhibited IKKb activity in addition to induction of death receptor 6 (DR6) as well as their target apoptotic genes. Finally, (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal suppressed anchorage-independent cancer cell growth, and tumor growth in xenograft model accompanied with apoptosis through inhibition of IKKb/NF-jB activity, and overexpression of DR6. These results suggest that (E)-2,4- bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal inhibits colon cancer cell growth through inhibition of IKKb/NF-jB activity and induction of DR6 expression.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant by the Korea government (MEST; MRC, 2012-0029480), and by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE, 1415126993) through the fostering project of Osong Academy-Industry Convergence (BAIO).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology
- Biochemistry, medical
- Cancer Research