Hepatic steatosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the advanced stages are closely related to cardiovascular diseases. Despite the potential connection between early CKD (G1-G3a) and hepatic steatosis on cardiometabolic risks, few studies have revealed their causal link to ischemic heart disease (IHD). We prospectively investigated the combined effect of CKD in earlier stages and hepatic steatosis on incident IHD risk in large-scale, non-diabetic Koreans. Data were assessed from 16,531 participants without diabetes from the Health Risk Assessment Study (HERAS) and Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) data. We divided the study population into four groups according to the existence of early CKD and hepatic steatosis: controls, early CKD only, hepatic steatosis only, and both early CKD and hepatic steatosis. We prospectively assessed hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for IHD using multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression models over a 50-month period. During the follow-up period, 326 (2.0%) patients developed IHD. HRs of IHD in the four groups were 1.00 (controls), 1.26 (95% CI 0.72–2.19), 1.19 (95% CI 0.90–1.57) and 1.76 (95% CI 1.04–2.97), respectively, after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Even less than stage 3A, CKD could precede and predict IHD in patients with hepatic steatosis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to thank the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment Services (HIRA) for their cooperation.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)