Early-type galaxies at z ∼ 1.3. IV. Scaling relations in different environments

A. Raichoor, S. Mei, S. A. Stanford, B. P. Holden, F. Nakata, P. Rosati, F. Shankar, M. Tanaka, H. Ford, M. Huertas-Company, G. Illingworth, T. Kodama, M. Postman, A. Rettura, J. P. Blakeslee, R. Demarco, M. J. Jee, R. L. White

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Abstract

We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z ∼ 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 1010 < M/M Ȯ < 1011.5, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z ∼ 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M ≲ 2 × 1011 M Ȯ and those with masses M ∼ 1011 M Ȯ follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, ∼ 35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number130
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume745
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Feb 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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    Raichoor, A., Mei, S., Stanford, S. A., Holden, B. P., Nakata, F., Rosati, P., Shankar, F., Tanaka, M., Ford, H., Huertas-Company, M., Illingworth, G., Kodama, T., Postman, M., Rettura, A., Blakeslee, J. P., Demarco, R., Jee, M. J., & White, R. L. (2012). Early-type galaxies at z ∼ 1.3. IV. Scaling relations in different environments. Astrophysical Journal, 745(2), [130]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/745/2/130