Background and aim: Since using LDL level alone is insufficient as a method to identify individuals with incident coronary artery disease (CAD), other factors may be implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD. Additionally, controversy still remains regarding whether there is an age-related increase in circulating cytokines in healthy individuals. We investigated the influence of age on atherogenicity of LDL and inflammatory markers in healthy women. Methods and results: Two thousand nine hundred forty four healthy women form 30-79 years old (23.3±0.05kg/m2) were categorized into 5 age groups: 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 years. BMI, smoking, drinking, and metabolic syndrome prevalence adjusted mean values of total-cholesterol progressively increased from the group age 30-39 years to the group age 40-49 and 50-59 years and thereafter decreased in the group age 60-69 and 70-79 years. Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were higher in women aged 60-79 years than women aged 30-59 years. Plasma ox-LDL levels increased in the group age 50-59 years compared with the group age 30-39 and 40-49 years and further increased in the group age 60-69 and 70-79 years. Mean values of LDL particle size were smaller in women aged 60-79 years than those in women aged 30-59 years. After adjustment for BMI, smoking, drinking, and metabolic syndrome status, age was positively correlated with LDL-cholesterol (r=0.095, P<0.001), oxidized LDL (r=0.305, P<0.001), hs-CRP (r=0.150, P<0.001), TNF-α (r=0.171, P<0.001) and IL-6 (r=0.294, P<0.001) and negatively with LDL particle size (r=-0.239, P<0.001). Conclusion: Our results indicate that LDL atherogenicity and inflammatory mediators can be better markers of CAD risk than known risk factors such as elevated concentrations of total- and LDL-cholesterol, decreased HDL-cholesterol levels and smoking in old healthy women.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We sincerely thank the study subjects for their participation. This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea ( 2012-0005604 ), Republic of Korea. All the authors were involved in the development of the study protocol and the experimental design.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine