Objective: This study examined the craniofacial morphology of young patients in their prepubertal stage showing class I, II malocclusion, by analyzing lateral cephalograms, and analyzed its relationship with tongue position, tongue space, and airway space in order to ascertain the effects of nasopharyngeal airway and tongue morphology on the form of the malocclusion. Methods: Seventy-six patients aging from 9 to 11 were divided into two groups depending on the ANB difference on the lateral cephalogram: Experimental group (Cl II malocclusion group) showing 0 ≤ ANB difference ≤ < 4.0; Control group (Cl I malocclusion group) showing 0 ≤ ANB difference < 4.0. The tongue space, space between palate and tongue, nasopharyngeal airway space and craniofacial morphology were compared between the two groups. Results: Tongue space, palate-tongue space, nasopharyngeal airway space showed no significant differences between class I and class II malocclusion groups. Hyperdivergent faces were associated with smaller nasopharyngeal airway space. Longer anterior facial height and posterior facial height were associated with larger tongue space, and greater anterior facial height were associated with lower tongue position. Smaller nasopharyngeal airway space showed smaller tongue space. Conclusions: Tongue space and nasopharyngeal airway space showed no significant differences between class I malocclusion group and class II malocclusion group. Only anterior facial height and posterior facial height had an influence on tongue space and nasopharyngeal airway space.
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